Belting Glossary

All | # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are 88 names in this directory beginning with the letter C.
Cable yarn
Two or more plied yarns twisted together.

Calculated center distance
In belt drives, the distance between two shaft centers calculated from pulley diameters and belt length being used.

Calender
A machine with three or more internally heated or cooled cylinders used to (1) continuously sheet out polymeric compound or fused PVC (2) to wipe polymeric compound into the interstices of a fabric leaving a small portion of it on the surface of the fabric, or (3) to lay a continuous sheet of compound on a fabric.

Calendered "rubber" sheets
Continuous film of uncured elastomer produced from a calendar.

Camber
The curvature of a belt relative to the center line (see bow).

Capacity
The maximum number of pieces, volume, or weight of material a belt conveyor can handle in a given time interval and belt speed.

Capped edge
A rubber protective edge placed around a product internally reinforced with textile or other material.

Capped end
A belt end covered with an elastomer to protect the carcass end.

Carcass
The fabric, cord and/or metal reinforcing section of any rubber product such as a belt, as distinguished from the rubber cover.

Carcass break
A ply or plies of fabric ruptured by impact or gouging.

Carcass tear strength
The resistance of a belt against tearing.

Carcass tear test
The determination of the tension at which a belt may be torn.

Carrier
See idler (2).

Carry (or carrying) side cover
See top cover.

Carrying roller
See carrying idler.

Carrying run
The portion of a conveyor that carries the load between the loading and discharge points.

Carrying surface
The outward face or side of the belt which carries the conveyed material.

Castfilm
A film made by depositing a layer of plastic, either molten, in solution, or in a dispersion onto a surface, solidifying and removing the film from the surface.

Catenary idler
A type of flexible belt-carrying idler with ends supported in pivoted stands. The tube or rollers sag under the weight of the load to form trough.

CEMA
Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association.

Cement
A mixture of polymeric compound or elastomer used as an adhesive or sealant.

Cemented edge
An application of cement around the edge of a fabricated product with or without internal reinforcement for protection or adhesion. (A form of Capped Edge.)

Cemented end
A belt end sealed with the application of elastomeric cement.

Center roll
The horizontal roll between the side troughing rolls.

Center-to-center
The distance between the center of two pulleys or idlers. Also called centers or center distance.

Centrifugal bucket elevator
A type of bucket elevator having a belt which travels at sufficient speed to discharge material from the buckets by centrifugal force.

Chafer duck
A relatively open weave duck of approximately square woven construction made with single or ply yarn.

Chalking
Formation of a powdery surface condition due to disintegration of surface binder or elastomer due in turn to weathering or other destructive environments.

Checking
Short shallow cracks on the surface generally due to effect of destructive action of environmental conditions.

Chevron
A ridge or profile arranged in a Vee shaped configuration on a belt carrying cover to stabilize material carried up an incline.

Chute lining
Highly abrasion resistant elastomeric lining in a chute to protect the metal chute from abrasion wear.

Chute slope
Angle relative to the horizontal a chute is inclined.

Cleated belt
Transverse raised sections on a conveyor belt to stabilize material carried up an incline.

Closed belt conveyor
A moving, endless conveyor belt formed into a tubular shape by joining its edges while carrying material, and opening the edges while in motion to receive and discharge material.

Cloth impression
See fabric impression.

Cluster end
A flat disc idler with several discs adjacent to each other at the ends of the idler.

Coefficient of friction
The ratio of the force required to move a package across a belt surface to the weight of the package.

Cog
A tooth on the rim of a wheel or rubber product.

Cogged V-belt
A V-belt cut or produced with a series of evenly spaced V-shaped indentations in the inner face to increase the belt's flexibility.

Cohesive
Tendency of a material to stick to itself.

Coil
Usually a squared end belt piece of full manufacturing length but not full manufacturing width. See also slab belting.

Cold feed
The introduction of plastic pellets into processing equipment without milling.

Cold flex
See low temperature flexing.

Cold flexibility
The relative ease of bending following exposure to low temperature.

Cold flow
Continued deformation under stress. See Creep.

Cold splice/bond
Usually the joining of two or more sub-straits together, using a two-part cement that is chemically cured without using supplemental heat from an external source. "Cold bond cement" usually is an uncured mixture of varied elastomers, chemicals, and solvents that will not self-cure or vulcanize until mixed with an activator to create a chemical vulcanization (usually exo-thermic).

Commercially smooth
A degree of smoothness of an article which is acceptable in accordance with industry practice.

Compound
A mixture of a polymer(s) and other materials to give the desired chemical and physical properties in the elastomeric components of a belt.

Compression member
The portion of a belt beneath the pitch line as the belt bends around a pulley.

Compression set
The deformation in a material remaining after it has been subjected to and released from a compressive force.

Conductivity
Quality of power of conducting or transmitting heat or electricity.

Contact stain
When staining occurs on the area of an object directly in contact with the rubber article it is known as "contact stain".

Continuous bucket elevator
A bucket elevator belt that discharges by gravity over the inverted bottom of the preceding bucket on the descending side of the elevator.

Control
A material or a product of known characteristics included in a series of tests to provide a basis for evaluation of other products.

Conveyor
A system for the continuous movement or transport of bulk materials, packages or objects along a predetermined path.

Conveyor belt
A belt that carries materials from one place to another.

Conveyor belt package deflector
A mechanical diverter placed at an angle across the belt to deflect packages off the belt at specific locations.

Conveyor belt stretch
The increase in belt length which occurs when tension is imposed. Stretch is either elastic or permanent. Elastic stretch is a temporary change in length which varies directly with the pull. Permanent stretch is the residual change in length after tension has been removed; it generally accumulates over a period of time.

Conveyor width
In belt conveyors, the width of a belt.

Copolymer
A substance consisting of molecules characterized by the repetition of two or more types of monomeric units.

Cord
Several strands of yarn twisted together.

Cord belt
A belt with inserted textile or steel cords for the longitudinal tension-bearing member.

Cord fabric
A fabric with plied or cabled yarns in the warp direction and a light weight filling yarn spaced only sufficiently to process the fabric.

Cotton
A natural fiber of high cellulosic content.

Count
In a fabric, the number of warp ends, the number of filling picks, or both in a square inch of fabric.

Counter weight
In conveyor belting, the weight applied to the take-up assembly to maintain proper belt tension.

Cover
The outer component of a belt.

Cover seam
See cover splice.

Cover splice
The transverse joint formed by connecting two lengths of cover stock.

Cover surface profile
A cross-sectional view of the cover surface.

Cover wear
The loss of material during use due to abrasion, cutting or gouging.

Cracking
A sharp break or fissure in the surface. Generally due to excessive strain.

Crater
A small shallow surface imperfection.

Crazing
A cover surface with many fissures.

Creep
(1) The deformation occurring with the lapse of time in both cured and uncured rubber, in a body under stress in addition to the immediate elastic deformation. Some related terms and properties are stress-relaxation, hysteresis, damping, flow, compression set and viscosity. See Cold Flow. (2) In belts, the action of a belt alternately losing speed on the driving pulley and gaining speed on the driven pulley.

Creeper drive
An auxiliary drive, usually consisting of a small motor and speed reducer, used to keep a belt conveyor in motion at a very low speed during non-operating periods in extremely cold weather. It is used to prevent freezing of a belt and other components.

Crimp
(1) The waviness of the yarn in a woven fabric. (2) The difference in distance between two points on a yarn as it lies in a fabric and the same two points when the yarn has been removed and straightened. Expressed as a percentage of the distance between the two points as the yarn lies in the fabric.

Crown
The difference between the diameter at the center and at the edges of a pulley or a roll.

Crowned pulley
A pulley with a greater diameter at the center, or other points, than at the edges. There are radial and trapezoidal crowns. Apex crowns are not recommended for industrial belts.

Crystallization
A change in physical properties resulting from the crystalline reorientation caused by temperature.

Cure
The act of vulcanization.

Cure time
Time required, at a given temperature, to produce optimum physical properties in an elastomer.

Curing temperature
The temperature at which the rubber product is vulcanized.

Curl
The action of the edges of a belt bending upward on the carrying run and downward on the return run. Also called cupping.

Cushion breaker
A leno or cord breaker imbedded in a belt cover.

Cut belts
See cut edge.

Cut edge
The uncovered edge of a laminated product, such a belt, created by cutting after vulcanization.

Cut resistance
The ability of a belt cover to withstand the cutting action of sharp objects.